During 2019, Circle Economy conducted a scoping study commissioned by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, on the “Global environmental and socio-economic effects of pursuing a circular economy in the Netherlands and the EU”. The scope of the study had a focus on exploring impacts in low-income countries. The study provides a deep dive into two exemplary products (denim jeans and mobile phones) with globalised value chains (both upstream and downstream) and significant potential for circular economy initiatives. From resource extraction to end-of-life, the study visualises and highlights the most important countries involved in these value chains. It also describes the potential impacts of Dutch and EU circular economy policies on countries outside the EU by looking at indicators such as land use, pollution of water and soil, work and income, CO2 emissions and health and safety.